My Perspectives

Introducing Quantum Artificial Intelligence (QAI): The Future Intersection of Quantum Computing and AI


(This article was originally published in 2018. Updated in 2022 after the release of ChatGPT)

While I like to explore and learn about quantum computing in my quantum-computing related blog, my main research and professional focus remains on AI, particularly on the security and safety aspects of AI. I typically share my AI-related writing on Defence.AI. Therefore, the potential integration of AI with quantum computing is of special personal interest to me, as it promises to blend my areas of interest in exciting new ways.

It’s not uncommon to hear skepticism about Quantum Artificial Intelligence (QAI), often dismissed as just another buzzword amalgamation crafted primarily to captivate investors. However, the fusion of quantum computing and artificial intelligence makes sense and indeed holds tangible promise beyond just the hype. I’m aware of these doubts surrounding QAI and will try to demystify the practical value and potential breakthroughs achievable by integrating these technologies.

Quantum Artificial Intelligence (QAI) is an emerging new field where quantum computing meets artificial intelligence. This conflation explores how quantum algorithms can enhance, accelerate, and expand the capabilities of conventional AI systems. Quantum computing, once commercially viable, will be able to offer to AI the level of computational power on a scale that classical computing systems simply cannot match. For a computing-power-hungry AI this means significantly enhanced processing power for tasks like optimization, simulation, and machine learning models, enabling them to handle more complex variables and train more quickly and effectively than ever before. This exponential growth in computational abilities could dramatically shorten the time required to perform AI tasks that currently might take years to complete on classical computers.

Just like quantum computing, Quantum Artificial Intelligence (QAI) remains largely within the research phase, and widespread commercial applications may seem a distant reality (see “Q-Day Predictions: Anticipating the Arrival of Cryptanalytically Relevant Quantum Computers (CRQC)“). This early stage mirrors the developmental paths of many revolutionary technologies, where substantial foundational research precedes practical and commercial viability. However, it’s important not to underestimate the potential of QAI. Despite the present constraints, the integration of quantum principles with AI holds immense promise.

Exponential Growth in AI Computing Requirements

To set a bit of a context. The computing requirements for AI have grown exponentially as AI models and applications have become more sophisticated. This surge is driven by several factors:

  1. Complexity and Size of Models: As AI research pushes the boundaries of what’s possible, the models themselves are becoming increasingly complex. For instance, large language models like GPT and other similar architectures require vast amounts of data and computational power to train. These models can have billions to trillions of parameters, necessitating significant hardware resources to manage.
  2. GPU and Hardware Demand: AI and machine learning models, especially those involving deep learning, rely heavily on graphical processing units (GPUs) for training because GPUs are particularly efficient at handling the parallel processing tasks that AI requires. This has led to massive purchases of GPUs, particularly from companies like NVIDIA, which are favored for their powerful processing capabilities suited for AI tasks.
  3. Energy Consumption: The energy requirements to run these powerful models are substantial. Training a single AI model can consume as much electricity as several homes use in a whole year. For example, training models like those mentioned previously can require the equivalent energy expenditure of dozens of homes annually. The carbon footprint of developing and operating AI at scale has become a growing concern, leading to discussions about the sustainability of AI development practices.
  4. Infrastructure Needs: Beyond just GPUs, AI computing demands robust infrastructural support, including advanced cooling systems to manage heat output from high-performance computing, as well as data storage solutions capable of handling the enormous datasets used for training AI models.
  5. Predictions for Future Needs: As AI continues to evolve, the demand for computing power is expected to increase. Predictions suggest that as AI applications become more integral across different sectors—from healthcare to autonomous vehicles—the infrastructural and energy demands will continue to grow. This has led to increased investment in more efficient computing technologies, like specialized AI chips and quantum computing, which may potentially offer more power-efficient ways to meet these computing demands.

Traditional computing paradigms are struggling to keep pace with the exponential growth in demand for processing power needed to handle vast datasets and complex models. Quantum computers, with their unique capabilities, offer a promising solution to this challenge.

Introduction to Quantum Artificial Intelligence (QAI)

There are two main types of machine learning tasks: supervised and unsupervised. Both types fundamentally rely on the manipulation of high-dimensional vectors and matrices. In supervised machine learning, the learner is provided with a set of training examples, each represented as high-dimensional vectors with corresponding labels indicating their category. The goal is to classify new examples based on these training sets. In unsupervised machine learning, the system aims to classify data into different groups without prior labelling. For example, it can distinguish an object from a landscape background by classifying the pixels of an image into two groups: the object and the background. The core mathematical task for both supervised and unsupervised algorithms involves evaluating the distance and inner products between high-dimensional vectors to analyze their similarity.

This reliance on vectors and matrices means that both types of machine learning require significant computational resources to handle these high-dimensional data structures. Evaluating the distance and inner products between vectors involves complex calculations, which become increasingly time-consuming as the data size grows. This process requires computational power proportional to the size of the vectors, posing a challenge for classical computers as data sizes continue to expand rapidly.

Quantum computers, which are particularly suited for manipulating vectors and matrices, could provide an asymptotically exponential speed-up over classical computers in performing some machine learning tasks involving large vectors. For example, in the task of assigning N-dimensional vectors to one of k clusters, each with M representative samples, a quantum computer can complete the task in O[log(MN)] time.

This quantum approach of evaluating vector distances is a core mathematical subroutine for various machine learning tasks, including the supervised nearest-neighbor algorithm and unsupervised machine learning algorithms. In the supervised nearest-neighbor algorithm, each test vector is analyzed by evaluating the distance between itself and all the training vectors, and then categorized into the group of the nearest training vector. In unsupervised machine learning, no training vectors are provided, and the system needs to achieve reasonable classification by iteratively calculating the distance between different vectors.

In March 2015, a group of Chinese researchers have published a paper titled “Entanglement-based machine learning on a quantum computer” in which they demonstrated that manipulating high-dimensional vectors and estimating the distance and inner product between vectors—a ubiquitous task in machine learning—can be naturally performed with quantum computers, thus proving the suitability and potential power of quantum machine learning

Why Quantum Computers Are Well-Suited for Manipulating Vectors and Matrices Required by AI

Quantum computers utilize qubits as their fundamental units of information. Unlike classical bits, which can only be in a state of 0 or 1, qubits can exist in superposition, meaning they can represent both 0 and 1 simultaneously. This property is analogous to working with vectors in a high-dimensional space. Each qubit can be seen as a vector in a 2-dimensional complex space, allowing quantum computers to process multiple values at once.

Superposition enables quantum computers to handle and manipulate vast amounts of data in parallel, significantly enhancing their computational capacity. This is particularly advantageous for AI and ML tasks that require the processing of high-dimensional vectors, as it allows quantum computers to perform operations on multiple data points simultaneously, rather than sequentially as in classical computing.

Quantum gates are the building blocks of quantum algorithms, used to manipulate qubits. These gates can be represented as matrices, and their application involves matrix operations on qubit state vectors. For instance, applying a quantum gate to a qubit state involves multiplying the state vector by a matrix. This direct correspondence between quantum operations and matrix manipulations makes quantum computers inherently suited for tasks involving vectors and matrices.

In AI and ML, many algorithms rely on linear algebra operations such as matrix multiplication, vector addition, and inner product calculations. Quantum gates can efficiently perform these operations, offering significant speed-ups over classical methods. This capability is crucial for implementing complex AI models and performing large-scale data analysis.

Entanglement is another quantum computing characteristic and it can enable complex correlation. Quantum entanglement is a phenomenon where qubits become interconnected, such that the state of one qubit instantly influences the state of another, regardless of the distance between them. This entanglement creates complex correlations that are described using vectors and matrices.

Entanglement allows quantum computers to perform parallel computations on entangled qubits, facilitating highly efficient multi-qubit operations. This parallelism is especially beneficial for AI and ML tasks that involve large datasets and require the simultaneous processing of multiple data points. Entangled qubits can share and process information in ways that classical bits cannot, enabling more sophisticated and efficient computations.

The Quantum Fourier Transform (QFT) is the quantum analogue of the classical Fourier transform, used extensively in many quantum algorithms. QFT is exponentially faster than its classical counterpart and serves as a linear transformation on qubits. This efficiency in handling vector and matrix operations is leveraged in several quantum algorithms, such as Shor’s algorithm for factoring large numbers.

In the context of AI and ML, QFT can be used to speed up algorithms that rely on Fourier transforms, which are commonly used in signal processing, data compression, and image analysis. The ability of QFT to perform these transformations efficiently makes quantum computers particularly adept at handling complex AI tasks.

Quantum algorithms, such as the Harrow, Hassidim, and Lloyd (HHL) algorithm for solving linear systems, demonstrate exponential speed-ups for certain matrix manipulations. These algorithms exploit quantum properties like superposition and entanglement to perform complex calculations much more efficiently than classical counterparts. The HHL algorithm can solve linear systems exponentially faster than the best-known classical algorithms, making it highly suitable for AI tasks that involve large-scale linear algebra computations. This speed and efficiency are crucial for training AI models, optimizing algorithms, and performing data-intensive tasks.

As you can see, quantum computers have inherent ability to manipulate vectors and matrices at unprecedented speeds. They offer a promising alternative to classical computing technologies by potentially reducing the time and energy required for complex AI computations.

Recent Key Quantum Artificial Intelligence (QAI) Research Papers

The theoretical proposal for the latest approach to QAI was developed by a group of researchers from MIT and Google. In their 2013 paper “Quantum algorithms for supervised and unsupervised machine learning” they proposed machine learning algorithms which could offer an exponential speedup over classical algorithms.

The first experimental realization of such QAI was achieved in 2014 by a group of Chinese scientists. In their paper “Experimental Realization of Quantum Artificial Intelligence” they describe how they applied a quantum machine learning algorithm running on a four-qubit NMR-based quantum computer to solve an optical character recognition problem.

Not long after, in March 2015, another group of Chinese researchers reported in their paper “Entanglement-based machine learning on a quantum computer” the first experimental entanglement-based classification of two-, four-, and eight-dimensional vectors to different clusters using a small-scale photonic quantum computer, which are then used to implement supervised and unsupervised machine learning. The results demonstrated the working principle of using quantum computers to manipulate and classify high-dimensional vectors, the core mathematical routine in machine learning.

Quantum Machine Learning Algorithms

Numerous quantum algorithms have been proposed to enhance machine learning processes. In addition to those mentioned above. Quantum support vector machines (QSVM) leverage quantum computing to efficiently solve optimization problems central to support vector machines, such as finding the optimal hyperplane for data classification. Quantum K-means clustering utilizes quantum principles to improve the efficiency of clustering large datasets, identifying patterns and groupings more effectively than classical methods. Quantum neural networks (QNN) aim to exploit the superposition of quantum states for enhanced learning capabilities, potentially leading to faster and more accurate models.

Quantum support vector machines represent one of the most promising applications of quantum computing in machine learning. In traditional support vector machines, the goal is to find a hyperplane that separates data points of different classes with the maximum margin. This involves solving a complex optimization problem that becomes increasingly difficult as the size of the dataset grows. By leveraging quantum parallelism, QSVMs can solve these optimization problems more efficiently, potentially offering significant speedups for large-scale classification tasks.

Quantum K-means clustering is another area where quantum computing shows great promise. The K-means algorithm is a popular method for partitioning a dataset into clusters, where each cluster is defined by its centroid. The traditional K-means algorithm involves iteratively assigning data points to clusters and updating the centroids, a process that can be computationally intensive for large datasets. Quantum K-means clustering utilizes quantum algorithms to perform these updates more efficiently, enabling faster convergence and better handling of large datasets.

Quantum neural networks are an exciting frontier in quantum machine learning. Traditional neural networks consist of layers of interconnected nodes, or neurons, which process input data to produce a desired output. Quantum neural networks aim to leverage the properties of quantum mechanics, such as superposition and entanglement, to enhance the learning capabilities of these networks. By representing data and performing computations in quantum states, QNNs have the potential to process information more efficiently and achieve higher levels of accuracy compared to classical neural networks.

Applications of Quantum AI

The integration of quantum computing into AI and ML opens up a plethora of applications across various domains. One of the most promising applications is in optimization problems. Many real-world problems, such as logistics, finance, and drug discovery, involve finding optimal solutions from a vast number of possibilities. Quantum computing’s ability to handle complex optimization tasks makes it ideal for these applications, potentially leading to faster and more accurate solutions. Majority of use cases from Quantum Computing Use Cases rely on quantum ML and AI.

In the field of big data analytics, quantum machine learning can process and analyze vast amounts of data more efficiently than classical methods. This capability is particularly valuable in areas such as genomics, climate modeling, and social network analysis, where large datasets are common. By leveraging quantum computing, researchers can gain deeper insights into these complex systems and make more informed decisions.

Quantum cryptography, while not directly related to machine learning, provides secure communication channels that can protect sensitive AI data and ensure privacy. Quantum key distribution, a key component of quantum cryptography, allows two parties to securely exchange encryption keys, ensuring that their communications remain confidential. This technology is particularly important for applications involving sensitive data, such as healthcare and finance, where data privacy is paramount.

Challenges and Future Directions

Despite its potential, QAI faces significant challenges. One of the primary challenges is scalability. Current quantum computers are limited in the number of qubits they can effectively manage. Scaling up these systems to handle real-world AI applications remains a critical hurdle. Advances in quantum hardware and error correction techniques will be essential for overcoming this challenge and realizing the full potential of QAI.

Error rates are another major challenge for quantum computing. Quantum systems are susceptible to errors due to decoherence and noise, which can affect the accuracy and reliability of computations. Developing error-correcting codes and robust quantum architectures is essential for reliable QAI. Ongoing research in this area is focused on improving the stability and coherence of qubits, as well as developing techniques for error mitigation and correction.

Algorithm development is another area where significant progress is needed. Crafting quantum algorithms that outperform classical ones in practical scenarios is complex. While several quantum algorithms have demonstrated theoretical speedups, translating these theoretical advantages into practical applications requires further research and development. Identifying problems where quantum advantages are most pronounced and developing efficient quantum algorithms for these problems will be crucial for advancing QAI.

Looking ahead, the future of QAI is promising. As quantum hardware advances and more efficient algorithms are developed, we can expect to see quantum-enhanced AI applications becoming increasingly prevalent. The collaboration between quantum physicists, computer scientists, and AI researchers will be pivotal in unlocking the full potential of this transformative technology. The development of quantum machine learning frameworks and tools will also play a key role in enabling researchers and developers to harness the power of quantum computing for AI applications.


Quantum computing for AI and ML, or QAI, represents a frontier that holds immense promise for the future of technology. By harnessing the unique properties of quantum mechanics, QAI has the potential to revolutionize machine learning, offering unprecedented speedups and new capabilities. While challenges remain, the rapid advancements in quantum computing research and development are paving the way for a new era of intelligent data processing and analysis. As we continue to explore and innovate, the integration of quantum computing with AI will undoubtedly lead to groundbreaking discoveries and applications, transforming industries and enhancing our understanding of complex systems.


For 30+ years, I've been committed to protecting people, businesses, and the environment from the physical harm caused by cyber-kinetic threats, blending cybersecurity strategies and resilience and safety measures. Lately, my worries have grown due to the rapid, complex advancements in Artificial Intelligence (AI). Having observed AI's progression for two decades and penned a book on its future, I see it as a unique and escalating threat, especially when applied to military systems, disinformation, or integrated into critical infrastructure like 5G networks or smart grids. More about me, and about Defence.AI.

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